Defining “Unprocessed”

Gin Still

With just a few days to go before we start our month of no processed foods whatsoever, I’ve been getting a lot of questions about the definition of “unprocessed” — and whether specific foods are or are not okay during this challenge.

Before I go any further, let me reiterate that you need to do what’s right for you. No one is watching over your shoulder, and just as all food is intensely personal, so too is this challenge.

Likewise, if you feel you need to make any exceptions, by all means feel free to do so. Just make sure it’s a deliberate choice whenever possible.

My definition may not match your definition — and that’s okay. In fact, I encourage disagreement and discussion, since that’s the best way for us to learn together.

I also recognize that my definition isn’t perfect.  My goal here isn’t “perfection” — it’s more to help spark a dialogue, increasing awareness about how our food is made, what we’re putting into our bodies, and how we relate to our food.  (I’m also hoping to shed that last bit of pudge and finally get my six-pack abs, but that’s another story.)

Having said all that, here’s my working definition of unprocessed. I call it The Kitchen Test:

Unprocessed food is any food that could be made by a person with reasonable skill in a home kitchen with readily available, whole-food ingredients.

It doesn’t mean that you have to be able to make the food — but that the food could be made in a home kitchen by someone who knows what they’re doing.  If it needs high-powered, industrial equipment, or could only be made in a laboratory, then it’s out.

Here’s a good example.  Look at the ingredients for a PowerBar Triple Threat® Chocolate Peanut Butter Crisp:


I’ve bolded any ingredients that I’m pretty sure you can’t make at home (or without some sort of industrial process).  Compare that to the ingredients of a Cashew Cookie Lara Bar:


I’m absolutely certain that a cook with average skills could make something comparable to the Lara bar in your kitchen.  But the PowerBar?  Not so much.

Okay, so let me toss out a few other specific foods that I’ve been asked about:

Chocolate. Yup, it’s okay, because it’s possible to make chocolate at home.  However, if the store-bought chocolate contains extra emulsifiers, flavorings, or other additives that you wouldn’t use if you were make it at home, it’s off the list.

Coffee. Yup. Try this fun project: Buy some green coffee beans (they’ve already been cleaned for you), and toast them in your popcorn air popper.  (Skip the little yellow, blue, or pink packets and the powdered creamer.)  Or you could grow your own coffee plant, and then wet-process the beans yourself.  Totally doable at home (how much time do you have?)

Beer. Yup, I’ve got quite a few friends who make beer at home (one even grows his own hops — he makes truly incredible beers. Just saying.)

Wine. Yes, I’ve got quite a few friends who make wine at home. There is the question of sulfites, though. My winemaker friends usually add sulfites (sourced from winemaking suppliers, not from your regular grocery story, I believe) — so you’ll need to decide for yourself if you’ll seek out sulfite-free wines.

[Wine Update: Please read Dave’s clarification in the comments.]

Vodka, Gin, and other Spirits. Although I don’t recommend distilling your own (and it may be illegal), it’s certainly possible to do this at home.  Just skip the gimmicky flavored ones and I’m sure you’ll be fine.  Of course, it depends on how picky you want to be. You may wish to consider what sugars/starches are being used to feed the fermentation process.  If you want to research this some more, please report back!

Bacon and Sausage. As long as there are no additives (nitrates, flavorings, etc.), and it’s a high-quality product, you’re probably okay here. Maybe this is a good opportunity to get to know a local butcher.

“Veggie Burgers “and “Fake Meats.” Most of these should be avoided, as they usually contain a lot of textured vegetable protein (which I’m almost certain you couldn’t make at home).  But if you are in a pinch, you can probably find something that’ll work.  You’ll really need to read the ingredient list:  An All-American Flame-Grilled Boca Burger is definitely out. Dr. Praeger’s Gluten Free California Veggie Burger is certainly better, though it’s got a couple of ingredients that are questionable. (Personally, I’m going to do my best to avoid these).

Cooking Oils. It is possible to press your own oils at home, though it would be a rather inefficient process. I would expect that nut oils would be easier (just grind them up and let them separate, like your jar of peanut butter, right?).  Also, these old oil press instructions and drawings are fun.

Salt. Depending on how refined it is, this may or may not be okay. Stick with the natural, unprocessed salts such as the fabulous Fleur De Sel.

Sugar. Usually, the term “sugar” refers to bleached table sugar, those fine-white granulated crystals that come from sugar cane or sugar beets. The bleaching is done with sulfur dioxide, an ingredient that hopefully isn’t in your pantry.  Next!

Turbinado Sugar (“Raw” Sugar) is the same stuff — but it hasn’t been bleached.  I think it would be possible to make turbinado sugar crystals at home, if you had some sugar cane stalks ready to go.  Although there are a couple of steps in the commercial process that you couldn’t do, I’m guessing you could still get the crystals if you’re patient enough (perhaps a countertop food dehydrator would help evaporation).

[Sugar Update: Please read MrJackHonky’s thoughts on sugar in the comments.]

Honey. Good to go; in fact, this is probably the most “unprocessed” sweetener available.

Agave Nectar. You’re probably okay with this one. Some agave is simply heated (at relatively low temperatures).  It may also  be enzymatically processed.  Any agave experts out there want to weigh in?

Corn Syrup and High Fructose Corn Syrup. Both of these are too complicated to make at home.  Off the list.

Flour. As long as it’s 100% whole grain flour, it’s okay. You could certainly grind whole grains in your kitchen. As Bob’s Red Mill says, one pound in, one pound out. Refined flours, however, have had the germ and bran removed (leaving just the fluffy endosperm) — and are likely bleached or brominated, and may be enriched with nutrients that had been previously removed.

[Flour Update: Refined flour, as long as it’s unbleached and unenriched, actually would pass the Kitchen Test.  Check out this flour followup in the forums.]

Corn Meal and Masa. Again, if these are made with the whole grain (such as the whole grain cornmeal in my Bob’s Red Mill giveaway), then it’s all good.

Butter. Yup, you could certainly make real butter at home, if you’re so inclined.

Cheese. Yup.  In fact, I already make cheese at home.  Skip the “pasteurized processed” cheeses, or “cheese foods,” of course.

Nut Butters. Look at the ingredient list.  If it’s just “Nuts & Salt” (or better yet, just Nuts), then it’s great.  But if it’s got stabilizers, sweeteners, and oils, it’s a no-no (Skippy, I’m looking at you!)

Spices. Yup, these are okay. You could certainly grow them at home, dry them, and then grind them as needed.

Breads. Again, it’s all about the ingredient list.  The best option, of course, is to make it at home.  But if it’s store-bought, read the ingredient list.  The flour should be whole grain (avoid these pitfalls), and there shouldn’t be fillers, preservatives, artificial sweeteners (yes, they sometimes add those to 100% whole wheat breads.  Oroweat, I’m looking at you and your acesulfame potassium!)

Okay, I think that covers most of the biggies.  I’m sure I’ve missed some, so please ask in the comments. Also, if you disagree with any of my conclusions, or can add any other bits of advice, we’d all love to hear about it!

If you haven’t taken the October: Unprocessed pledge yet, now’s the time!

Don’t forget to enter the Whole Grain Giveaway before October 1st.  You could win an awesome Bob’s Red Mill gift pack!

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114 Responses to Defining “Unprocessed”

  1. mike hipp March 24, 2015 at 11:54 am #

    Sounds simple for one who is home most of the time; I travel and eat 4-6 meals at home per week. Suggestions?

  2. David May 30, 2013 at 9:23 am #

    This is a very loose guide/list, yet a real eye-opener for me. If it would, in any way, be difficult for average folks to follow these guidelines, then we are in a much more sorry state than I ever imagined. Unprocessed to me means what it means; let x = x. Of course, peeling a banana, technically, is processing, but in the spirit of the meaning it’s a far, far, far cry from harvesting, milling, and recipe-ifying wheat. Either way, it’s a start, I guess.

  3. Laura November 8, 2012 at 6:19 pm #

    Like the project. Although I clearly missed the month of October, I am trying to get to the point where my list of truly processed foods is under 10 all the time.

    Couple of things that may infuriate the non-meat eaters and meat eaters alike. First of all Nitrates are naturally occurring in vegetables especially celery. When you see bacon that says “Nitrate free” it is a misnomer because they are usually using some kind of concentrated celery juice to cure that bacon. In fact I have used a whole ground up head of celery along with salt in a brine to cure a corned beef in the fridge just to prove the point, so I think you should update your bias against nitrates because a person can create them easily at home.

    Oils: I will continue to buy and use coconut oil because although I probably couldn’t do it myself it is one of my 10 that I will always keep. Otherwise I buy local olive oil from a farmer who I even saw making it. If people want to really do unprocessed oil though they should learn to render meat fat and make some of the tastiest most stable and nutritious oil there is. I render beef tallow and pork lard all the time. This would be a very true definition of unprocessed oil by your definition because you can do it yourself at home.

    Course the bottom line is that most food is processed in some way, but for me besides the one small quibble regarding Nitrates, your idea that the ingredients are key not whether you would make it yourself is a good exercise in what it means to go “unprocessed”

  4. Critical Reader October 16, 2012 at 1:07 pm #

    Interesting list, hence a little bit biased. If you consider the average person to be able to extract sugar from cane at home, then you should also include corn syrup and high fructose corn syrup.

    Cheese – yes, it is possible to make cheese at home, but is the average person able to make for example parmesan and gorgonzola? Should they be excluded?

    Gelatin – yes or no? I doubt, that anybody can make that at home….

    Also, in some old cookbooks from the 60s salicylic acid is frequently used as a preservative. Nowadays it is not even allowed to be used in commercial products anymore (at least in Europe, not sure about the US). Most preservatives are readily available and could be easily added to your meals. I’m wondering, if they should be included.

  5. Trish October 10, 2012 at 7:27 am #

    Good morning, i found this through a thread on a blog. I am so happy to see someone doing this the right way. I cannot eat any processed food. I am allergic to most emulsifiers and those things they put in food to make it feel good in your mouth. Just so they can make with substandard ingredients and no one notices. Anyway, our family stopped eating processed food 4 years ago when i was pregnant with our little girl. We have not missed anything! Good luck everyone taking the challenge. Remember your intestines thank you!

  6. Erin October 1, 2012 at 9:15 am #

    There are a few veggie burgers that are can be made at home. Sunshine Burgers is one that is made with all recognizable ingredients and are very easily made at home.

    I make a lot of my own veggie meat substitutes, veggie sausages, seitan loaves. They are so much better than the store bought ones, healthier, I know exactly what is in them.

    What about Sucanat? That’s my sweetener of choice.

  7. WiscoJoe September 28, 2012 at 3:49 pm #

    What about foods when dining out?

  8. Mary September 24, 2012 at 9:27 am #

    What about pasta? I dont have any of the equipment to make it myself. The pasta I have lists its ingredients as: Whole grain durum wheat flour, semolina (wheat), Durum wheat flour, oat fiber.

    • Aubrey September 24, 2012 at 11:21 am #

      You can make pasta without a machine – just opt for easier to shape pastas like orriochetti (I’m sure I butchered the spelling), or roll out a flat sheet of it and cut in into strips for linguini or fettuncini.

  9. amanda September 22, 2012 at 11:33 am #

    should agave bed used? I personal feel it is processed. also honey from bees feed hfcs?

    • Andrew September 22, 2012 at 3:25 pm #

      I mentioned Agave in the post – I personally don’t think it’s a great choice anyway, so I opt for honey or maple syrup.

      They feed bees HFCS? Yikes!

  10. Alvin Robinson September 19, 2012 at 5:58 am #

    Can i eat organic potato chips?

    • Andrew September 19, 2012 at 7:11 am #

      “Organic” doesn’t necssarily mean “healthy” or “unprocessed.” Having said that, if the ingredients are Potatoes, Oil, and Salt, then — depending on the type of oil and how strict you’re being about how you define “unprocessed” — they would pass the kitchen test.

  11. Tammie Yak August 27, 2012 at 7:22 pm #

    I am curious about maltodextrin.

  12. Allyson October 13, 2011 at 9:54 am #

    I probably wouldn’t be able to iodize my own salt, would I?

    I’m kind of amused that it’s halfway through the month, and this is the first time iodized salt is coming up (I use non-iodized sea salt most of the time, but my husband was asking about it). I looked it up on Wikipedia and it doesn’t seem plausible, but I’d welcome any input from other people if they have it.

  13. Jaimi October 7, 2011 at 6:57 pm #

    Hi Andrew-

    I am severely lactose intolerant and frequently use soy and almond milks as a substitute. How would this fit in to the “processed” picture? I’d be heartbroken if I had to pass up adding some to my Irish Oatmeal!

  14. Agave Syrup October 4, 2011 at 4:16 pm #

    I Like the concept of this challenge not sure if i have what it takes to carry it out but I will try…


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